THE CODE OF ETHICS OF
The future of science in general and the
sphere of scientific publication depends largely not only
on compliance with laws and regulations, but also on the adherence to the
principles of ethics of mutual relations between participants of scientific and
publishing community. This is the key to improve the number of quality
scientific publications, as well as the successful development of mutual
cooperation of authors, publishers and readers of scientific publications. The
overall experience of ethical behavior is collected into a single document –
the Code of ethics of scientific publications (hereinafter – the Code)
developed by the Committee on the ethics of scientific publications.
The code of ethics of scientific
publications combines and reveals General principles and rules that should be
followed by the participants of the scientific publication process: authors,
reviewers, editors, publishers, distributors and readers.
Publication ethics is a system of norms of
professional behavior in relations between authors, reviewers, editors,
publishers and readers in the process of creation, dissemination and use of
The editor is the representative of the scientific
journal or publishing house, who prepares materials for publication, as well as
supporting communication with the authors and readers of scientific
The author is the person or group of people (group
of authors) involved in the creation of the publication of scientific research
The reviewer is an expert acting on behalf of a
scientific journal or publishing house and conducting scientific expertise of
copyright materials to determine the possibility of their publication.
The publisher is a legal or private person
carrying out the release of scientific publication.
The reader is any person who is acquainted with
the published materials.
Plagiary is the intentional appropriation of
authorship of another person’s product of science or art, foreign ideas or
inventions. Plagiary may be a violation of copyright and patent law and as such
may entail legal liability.
The principles of professional ethics in
the editor’s and publisher’s work
The editor is responsible for
publication of author's works, which imposes the need to follow the subsequent
- When deciding on publishing the editor
of the scientific journal is guided by reliability of presented data and
scientific importance of the work.
- An editor should evaluate manuscripts
for their intellectual content regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation,
religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, social status or political
preferences of the authors.
- Unpublished materials disclosed in a
submitted manuscript must not be used for personal purposes or transferred to a
third parties without written consent of the author. Information or ideas
obtained in the course of editing and related to possible benefits must be kept
confidential and not used for personal gain.
- The editor should not allow the
information to be published if there is sufficient reason to believe that it is
- The editor together with the publisher
should not leave unanswered complaints concerning the considered manuscripts or
published materials, and also they should take all necessary measures to
restore violated rights in any conflict situation.
Ethical principles in the reviewer’s
Reviewer provides scientific expertise
of copyright material, so his actions should be impartial, in compliance with
the following principles:
- Manuscript received for review must be
treated as a confidential document that cannot be transmitted for
familiarization or discussion to third parties without a permission from the
- The reviewer must give objective and
reasoned assessment of study results. Personal criticism of the author is
- The reviewer must not use the
unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript for his personal
The reviewer who thinks he is not
qualified to evaluate the manuscript or who cannot be objective, for example,
in case of a conflict of interest between the author or organization,
should inform the editor with a request to be excluded from the reviewing
process of this manuscript.
The principles that the author of
scientific publications should follow:
The author (or the group of authors)
realizes that they bear primary responsibility for novelty and validity of
scientific research results, which implies respect for the following
- The authors should provide reliable
research results. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements are
- Authors must guarantee that the
results of a study described in a submitted manuscript is completely original.
Borrowed fragments or statements must be formalized with the obligatory
indication of the author and source. Excessive borrowing and plagiary in any
form, including unformalized quotes, paraphrasing or assignment of rights to
the results of other people's research are unethical and unacceptable.
- It is necessary to recognize the
contribution of all people somehow influenced the course of the study, in
particular, the article must contain the references to the works which had
value during the research.
- Authors should not submit the manuscript
to the journal which was sent to another journal and is under consideration, as
well as articles already published in another journal.
- The list of co-authors of the article
should include all people who have made a significant contribution to the
study. It is unacceptable to indicate people among the co-authors who did not
participate in the study.
- If the author finds significant errors
or inaccuracies in the article at the stage of examination or after its
publication, he must inform the editorial board as soon as possible.
The code of ethics of scientific
publications was developed and approved by the Ethics Committee of scientific